Q. 5. Define the term feedback. Explain its process, method, and guidelines to make effective feedback.
Ans. Meaning of Feedback: It is the last and most essential element of the communication process. A communication process is said to have feedback when the receiver of the message has given his response to the sender’s message. With the help of feedback, the communicator comes to know how well the message has been received by the receiver, understood, interpreted and acted upon. Thus, it can be said that sending back the response about the message to the communicator is known as ‘feedback’. A communication process without a provision for feedback is not effective communication.
According to H.C. Hicks and C.R. Gullett, “Feedback or response, enables the source to know whether or not the message has been received and interpreted correctly. Feedback can cause the original source to modify future communication according to t the reaction of the receiver.”
Process of Feedback: In a communication process, the message is considered effective only when there exists a provision for feedback. Feedback process includes the process through which the receiver of
the message sends his reaction or response to the sender. Process of feedback, in a communication process, can be explained as follows:
Feedback is probably the most important technique for improving communication. Feedback is necessary to understand immediate reaction which would help in a great way in the decision-making process. Methods of Feedback
Methods of feedback can be expressed as follows:
- Oral Feedback: When the receiver of the message expresses his reaction orally then it is known as oral feedback. In this type of feedback, the receiver gives his response in spoken words. Oral communication permits instant feedback and also helps both the parties in the communication, the sender or speaker, make his message clearer, the listener to interpret the message more accurately.
- Written Feedback: When a response to the message is given in the written form, it is known as written feedback. In the written feedback, the sender cannot get instant feedback.
- Non-Verbal Feedback: When the receiver expresses his response with the help of body language, signs or symbols, then it is known as non-verbal feedback. Through non-verbal communication, feelings can be expressed in a better way.
Importance of Feedback: Success of the communication process can be measured through feedback therefore the effects and importance of feedback should no be ignored. Importance of feedback can be clarified as given below :
- Promote Good Relations: Feedback promotes good relations between management and employees and motivates people to do their best. Feedback creates mutual confidence and understanding between the management and employees.
- Helpful in Effective Communication: Feedback is one of the important essential requirements of effective communication. The manager who does not allow feedback will be less effective than the managers who receive feedback. Thus, the management has to provide an opportunity for feedback for effective decision making.
- Improvement in the Communication Process: Feedback is probably the most important technique of improving communication. It is necessary to understand the immediate reaction which would help in a great way in the decision-making process.
- Modification in the Message: Feedback enables the communicator to carry out corrections or changes in the messages to make them effective. It ensures that the receiver has received the message and understood in the same sense as the sender meant for.
- Avoid Errors in the Communication: Interface and interaction are possible in feedback. It avoids errors in the transmission of the message and promotes the effective participation of the subordinates.
Guidelines for Developing Effective Feedback Skills
Table of Contents
S.P. Robbins suggests six specific points for making effective feedback:
- Focus on Specific Behaviour: Feedback should always be for specific behavior not for general behavior. If in the reference of feedback it is said that your communication is not effective. then it is general feedback and communicator will feel a problem in improving his communication skills. But if in reference to a certain point, ineffectiveness is focussed then communicators can easily improve it.
- Keep Feedback Impersonal: The feedback, particularly the negative feedback, should be descriptive rather than judgment or evaluation. The criticism should be reasonable and related to the job but not personal.
- Make Feedback Well Timely: A timely feedback is more meaningful and useful and helps in bringing about the desired changes. Therefore, feedback should be made timely.
- Keep Feedback Goal Oriented: Feedback should always be related to the goal of the message. The negative feedback should be directed towards the recipient’s goal.
- Ensure Understanding: For effective feedback, it must be ensured that the receiver understands the messages clearly and fully. If the meaning of the message is not understood properly by the recipient, it is not effective communication.
- Control on Direct Negative feedback: Direct negative feedback towards the behavior of the sender must be controlled as it discourages the sender. In the case of negative feedback, suggestions for improving the communication must be given.
Business Corporate Communication Notes
Q. 6. What is the formal communication network? Explain the essentials of formal communication.
Ans: Formal Communication Network: A formal channel or communication can be defined as a means of communication that is normally controlled by managers or people occupying similar positions in an organization. Any information, decision, memo, reminder, etc. will follow this path. For example, an executive ‘A’, occupying a top position, passes an order to his immediate subordinate B who, after retaining the useful information up to him, passes the desired order to the next man C for necessary action and so on. In this way, the channel is a formal one. In the same way, communication may travel from below and pass through stages or points, again reinforcing the formal structure or character of the organization.
Influence of Formal Communication Network: The formal channels influence the effectiveness of communication primarily in two ways. In the first place, the formal channels covered ever-widening distance as organizations grow. For example, effective communication is generally far more difficult in a large retail organization with branches spread far and wide than in a small or big department store located in one place. Secondly, the formal channels of communication can actually inhibit or stand in the way of the free flow of information between organizational levels. For example, in a big factory, an assembly-line worker will communicate a problem to a supervisor rather than to the plant manager. Higher-level managers may sometimes not even come to know something of importance as and when needed. On the positive side, there are many advantages also. The formal channels, by virtue of their tendency to monitor and filter information, keep the higher-level managers from getting bogged down with it.
Essentials of Formal Communication: The communication is a two-way process consisting of seven elements :
1 Sender: Sender is the person who has an idea which he wants to share with others. Sender is the beginner of the communication process.
2 Encoding: The sender must take the help of words or non-verbal methods to shape his idea in a message. This is done by the process of encoding.
3 Message: The idea transformed into a presentable form is the message. It can be verbal (written or spoken) or non-verbal (body language, silence).
4 Channel: The medium through which the message reaches the receiver is the channel.
5 Receiver: The person to whom the message is intended is called the receiver.
6 Decoding: The receiver understands/misunderstands the message by the process called decoding. It is the reverse action of encoding where the message is reconverted into an idea.
7 Feedback: The response of the receiver after decoding the message is called feedback. The process of communication ends when this feedback reaches back to the sender.
Business Corporate Communication Notes
BBA Business Low Question Paper 2018-2020