Business Corporate Communication Notes
Table of Contents
Q. 4. What do you understand by audience analysis? Give its objectives.
Ans. Audience Analysis: In the communication process, the person who receives the message is known as the audience. He is the focal point of the entire communication process. Communication is completed only when the receiver under the message makes successful transmission of messages, it is necessary to know about the audience’s habit, perception, beliefs, sentiments, and attitudes, etc, which affect the communications director. Collection and study of information regarding audience such that who the audience are, what are their habits and emotion, what is their status, etc. is known as audience analysis.
Business Corporate communication Notes Unit 2nd:
Objectives of Audience Analysis: Analysis regarding and of the audience in communion upon mainly following four options, which are also known as objectives of audience analysis :
- Audience Coverage: The first objective of audience analysis is to get information about the coverage of the audience, i.e. how many audiences are included in the diameter of communication? Which section, area or class of audience comes in the access of communication, etc. This is also known as audience reach.
- Audience Response: The second objective of audience analysis is to get information on whether the audience understands the message in its true sense or not? How they react about the message? Is the response according to own expectation? Whether the audience has a positive attitude, etc.
- Communication Impact: The third objective of communication is to know the impact of communication on the audience. Has communication made any effect on the audiencinnamude and thinking of the audience positively affected? etc.
- Process of Influence: Which process is used to influence the audiences in which communication medium is used effectively in the communication, etc. are studied in the process of influence.
Section-C (Long Answer Questions)
Business Corporate Communication Notes
Q. 1. What are the main barriers to effective communication? Discuss in brief. Or What are semantic barriers in communication? How can they be removed?
Ans. Barriers to Effective Communication: Communication is one of the most common and essential human activities. Each one of us spends a major part of our day in one or the other form of communication. Even then communication is not always perfect.
- Semantic Barriers
Semantic barriers study the meaning of words and signs. Semantic barriers arise due to problems in language. Language is the most important tool of communication.
(a) Words with different meanings: Communication is mainly carried through spoken and written words. But some words convey different meanings to different e.g., the word tube may mean a fluorescent tube, a cycle tube. So these are words with a different meaning.
(b) Denotations and connotations: Words have two types of meaning denotative and connotative. The literal meaning of a word is known by its denoting meaning. just names objective without suggestions positive and negative quality. Book, chair, room, computer are an example of denotative words.
(C) Bad expression: When the message is not formulated and presented in the proper manner, the receiver fails to comprehend it and its misunderstanding occurs. Badly expressed message lose their impact. Use of tarragon, coined word acronyms and technical terms with special meaning.
(d) Faulty translation: Each center has to process the information it receives and translates it in a suitable form for further transmission. Often people translate words in a literal sense thereby losing the spirit behind the words. Inaccurate translation leads to misunderstanding and confusion. When different parts of a message are contradictory, the receiver gets confused over their reliability and validity. In case he is convinced with the existing knowledge or is not in a position to seek clarification, misunderstanding can occur.
(e) Unclarified assumptions: The sender of a message often has some assumptions. When these assumptions are vague and unknown to the receiver communication suffers. Consider the following incident:
On Monday, Prof. Sinha announced to his class, “I will be out of town from Tuesday until Friday. There will be no classes while I’m gone” On Tuesday 80 percent of the students came to class but Prof. Sinha failed to appear but on Friday 20 percent came along and Prof. Sinha was also present.
2. Physical or Mechanical Barriers
Physical barriers arise due to distance, noise, and defects in the mechanical devices used in communication.
(a) Noise: The flow of communication is often blocked due to noise caused by traffic, human sounds, construction work, typewriters, fans, etc. In factories, loud noise of the machine makes oral communication difficult. Blaring and other types of electronic noise interfere in communication through telephone and microphone.
(b) Distance and time: Physical distance between the sender and the receiver serves as a barrier to smooth communication. Telephone and Telex facilities are not available everywhere. There may be a breakdown in the telephone, telegraph and postal services or mechanical equipments. Problems in the medium of communication may lead to a loss in transmission
(c) Information overload: Excess of communication is called information overload. The receiver cannot comprehend and absorb beyond his mental capacity. His mind will be closed for a part of the communication. Therefore, we should be precise and brief in sending a message.
3. Organizational Barriers
Organizational barriers arise due to defects in the organization structure and the communication system of an organization. These are as follows:
(a) The long chain of command: When the scalar chain is unduly long, the distance between top management and workers increases. As a result, the downward and upward message has to pass through
several levels causing delays and distortions.
(b) Poor spatial arrangements: Faulty arrangement of furniture, partitions, pathway, etc. prevent eye contact between the speaker and his listeners. Spatial arrangements also create an emotional disturbance. Some persons do not like to work too close to other persons.
(c) Inappropriate medium: Each method is appropriate in specific situations. The choice and use of an unsuitable medium may act as a barrier to communication.
Business Corporate Communication Notes
4. Socio-Psychological Barriers
Social and psychological facts are the most difficult barriers to communication. These consist of the following:
(a) Attitudes and opinions: Personal attitudes and opinions often interfere with communication. If the message is consistent with our attitudes and opinions we receive it favorably The message fits comfortably in the filter of our mind. On the other hand, if the message is contrary to our expectations, beliefs and cherished values we do not react favorably to it.
(b) Emotions: Emotions block our mind, blow our thinking and we fail to organize the message properly. For example, the sender of a message fails to speak clearly when he is overexcited, worried nervous or angry. An extremely angry speaker (offensive style) falters in his speech and repeats the same words again and again. Similarly, the receiver cannot hear or read the message successfully.
(C) Status and fear: Status distinctions exist in every organization and status consciousness serves as a major barrier to communication.
Subordinates are either too conscious of their low status or too afraid of being snubbed. They are afraid of communicating upward only.
(d) Closed mind: A person may have a closed mind due to deeprooted prejudices and superiority complex limited intellectual background, narrow interest, etc., It is very difficult to communicate with such a person. He is not willing to listen and is not prepared to reconsider his opinion. He is met openly to conviction and persuasion. He holds his opinion so rigidly that he just refuses to listen.
(e) Inattention: ‘Lack of attention on the part of listener or reader is a common barrier to communication. Inattention arises due to mental preoccupation or distinction.
(f) Distrust: Communication is likely to fail when the receiver has a suspicion about the source of communication.
(g) Premature evaluation: Some people form a judgment before receiving the complete message. Such premature evaluation prevents effective communication. Once you form a judgment or response. Your mind is closed to the rest of the message.
(h) Poor retention: In the process of the transmission part of the message is lost at every level. The message is screened and only a part of it is transmitted further.
(i) Perceptual distortion: Perception implies noticing and understanding. Each perception has unique PRECONCEPTION depending upon his past experiences, attitudes, and interests.
(j) Resistance to change: When a message urges some change and the receiver as opposed to the change, the process of the communication is hampered. The receiver fails to absorb the new concepts as he refuses to accept the change.