BBA Business Communication Notes
Table of Contents
Q. 3. “Communication is an essential part of a business.” Explain this statement.
Or Discuss the importance of communication.
Ans. Importance of Communication: Human beings have an inborn desire to communicate with each other. Man is a social animal and in order to socialize he makes use of language and body movements. Communication has become indispensable to the success and well-being of people everywhere. Communication is equally essential to organized activity. An organization is a goal-oriented group of people who must remain in continuous touch with each other in order to function together as a team. According to Herbert Simon. “Without communication, there can be no organization for there is no possibility then of the group influencing the behavior of the individual.”
Communication is the vehicle through which basic management functions are carried out. Managers cannot plan, organize, direct and control without communication. It is no exaggeration to say that communication is the means by which organizational activity is unified, behavior is modified, change is affected and goals are achieved. A manager typically spends three-fourth of his working day on communication and his success depends largely on his communication skills.
Sound communication plays a vital role in organisations in the following ways:
- Efficient Planning: Accurate and up-to-date information concerning the external environment and internal conditions is necessary for taking right decisions at the right time. The quality of managerial decisions and plans depends largely on the quality of information and its effective transmission. Such information becomes available to managers through a proper system of reporting and consultations.
- Training and Development: Communication is essential for the orientation and on-going training of both workers and executives. Communication provides knowledge and the degree of learning depends to a great extent on the communication skills of the trainer. Communication facilitates delegation of authority which is essential for developing executive skills.
- Motivation and Morale : Communication plays an important role in inspiring people to work hard and in fostering positive attitudes. Managers can increase the self-confidence and job satisfaction of employees by keeping in close touch with them.
- Coordination: Communication is the most effective means for unifying and integrating the efforts of individuals towards common goals. It serves as a cementing force in the face of narrow specialization and facilitates teamwork. According to Gellerman, “An organization can be more efficient than the system by which it transforms its members of what is expected of them so that their effort will reinforce each other and create momentum towards the attainment of the organization’s purpose.”
- Leadership: A leader can modify the behavior of his people through tact and persuasion. For this purpose the leader needs to be a good orator and patient listener. He can sell his ideas and overcome resistance to change through a two-way flow of communication. By keeping himself close to his people, the leader can continuously win their support and loyalty. Leadership becomes inspiring and effective when the leader remains in close touch with his subordinates.
- Effective Control: Communication from the boss serves as the basis on which employees mulate their work and know-how well they are doing. A manager can correctly judge the of his subordinates and take suitable remedial actions on the basis of feedback performance of his subordinates and take information from them.
- Industrial Relations: Communication creates a meeting of minds and a meeting of hoortsIt can bring people closer to each other. Sound and open communication help to improve Cations between employers and employees and between employers and the trade unions. It helps to develop mutual co-operation and understanding thereby improving industrial harmony and industrial productivity.
- Corporate Image: Communication is indispensable for every organization to develop and maintain a reputation or goodwill in society. A business concern can keep itself in close touch with its customers, investors, dealers, suppliers and other sections of society through various forms of communication.
Thus, effective communication is the foundation of sound management. A free flow of information and ideas throughout the organization is as essential for corporate health as proper circulation of blood in the human body. In fact no interpersonal or group activity is possible without communication. Communication is the number one problem of management and every manager should develop an effective communication system. An executive’s life revolves mainly around reading and writing letters and reports, telephoning and meeting people inside and outside the organization.
Q. 4. Write a detailed note on “principles of communication”.
Ans. Principles of Communication: In order to make your letters, memoranda, reports, representations and other forms of communication effective, you should follow certain scientific. principles. The principles discussed in this question are of fundamental importance and relevant to all media but they are most important to written communication,
The principles of communication are
1. Clarity (BBA Business Communication Notes)
(a) Clarity of thought: The communication cycle begins with the generation of an idea in the mind of the transmitter. A great deal of clarity is needed at this stage, for its beginning is fuddled, it is likely to move the entire communication process. The communicator must be clear about three. points:
(i) What is the objective of communications?
(ii) What is to be communicated?
(iii). Which medium will prove to be the most suitable for this purpose? Let us suppose that some inflammable material is stored at a particular place in the factory and the manager wants to prohibit smoking there. The objective of communication is to give a warning The message to be communicated is just this: Please do not smoke here. The most suitable medium for this communication should be a visual one: a poster showing a cross mark on a lighted cigarette
(b) Clarity of expression: The receiver learns about the idea in the mind of the transmitter through the coded message. If encoding is faulty, the message may be misinterpreted. So it is important to be careful while encoding the message. Since most of the messages are transmitted with the help of words the transmitter should be careful about the meanings and organization of words.
2. Completeness (BBA Business Communication Notes)
In business communication, the completeness of facts is absolutely necessary. Incomplete communication irritates the reader, for it leaves him baffled. If wrong actions follow an incomplete message, they may also prove expensive.
e.g., You are ordering jeans and shirts by mail. Your communication must include all the relevant facts-size, color, catalog number, quantity, mode of payment, mode of despatch, the date by which you need the jeans and shirts, etc. In the absence of any of these details, your order may not be filled to your satisfaction. You should organize your message in such a way that the receiver has no doubts about anything contained in it.
3. Conciseness (BBA Business Communication Notes)
A reader’s time is invaluable. Do not make him feel that he is wasting his time in going through your unnecessarily lengthy letter. Be as brief as possible. Brevity in expression effectively win the attention of the reader. However, brevity should not be affected at the cost of appropriateness, clarity correctness, completeness or courtesy. The following four simple rules will help ‘to achieve conciseness in the given message:
(a) Include only relevant facts.
(b) Avoid repetition.
(C) Avoid trite and wordy expression.
(d) Proper organization of the message.
4. Consideration (BBA Business Communication Notes)
In our letters, we must show consideration for the reader. This can be done in the following ways:
(a) Adopt the you-attitude: We know that we are primarily interested in ourselves. Naturally, every other person is interested more in himself then in a third party. It follows, there one, war when we write letters to others, they are effective and the reader’s response to our letters well only when we write from their point of view. so to make our letters more effective, we must avoid is and wa’s and have as many you are as possible. In any case we should not forget the reader’s point of view in the whole of our letter.
(b) Avoid gender bias: Now that the business world is no longer dominated by men, it is extremely important to avoid gender bias. Using him when a message is going to a lady will certainly cause offense. So take timely precautions.
(i) Use words free from gender bais: The chairperson handled the situation tactfully (and not chairman) the police was deputed (and not policemen).
(ii) Use a slash to include both the alternatives :
(c) Emphasise positive, pleasant facts: On many occasions, you may have to refuse, say ‘no’, regret, disagree, complain or say ‘sorry’. To say this in plain words and a straightforward style is not difficult but its affect on the reader’s mind and repercussions on the firm are bad and far-reaching. We swallow sugar-coated pill without grumble. Similarly in a business letter, the reader accepts calmly and coolly all the no’s, regret and sorry’s if they are expressed in a positive manner.
5. Courtesy (BBA Business Communication Note)
Courtesy means a friendly and helpful behaviour towards others. Politeness begets politeness and encourages participative communication. This will make communication acceptable without irritation and the feedback will also be graceful.
6. Correctness, (BBA Business Communication Notes)
For effective communication, the sender should not transmit any message unless he is sure of its correctness. If the message is concerned with legal matter the sender should know the correct legal position before he commits anything, moreover, the sender should send his message at the correct time and in correct style.
BBA Business Low Question Paper 2018-2020
Q. 5. Discuss the importance and limitations of downward and upward communications.
Ans. Downward Communication
Downward communications flow from a higher authority to a lower authority. For example, the message of a branch may communicate next year’s deposit targets of the branch to his employees. Orders, instructions policy statements, notices, circulars job sheets, and employee handbooks are the main form of downward communication.
Downward communication is very common. It is based on the assumptions that at high level individual has the authority to communicate to lower level persons. It is also known as “down stream communication. Both oral and written media are used for downward communication. Face-to-face talks, telephone, and public address are the main sources of the oral message.
Importance BBA Business Communication Notes
Importance of downward communication are as follows:
- To give specific instructions and directions about the job entrusted to a subordinate so that the job is performed efficiently.
- To explain the policies, procedures, and programs of the organization to employees.
- To educate and train employees so as to improve their knowledge and skills.
- To explain the subordinates the rationals of their jobs so that they understand the significance of their works in relation to organization goals.
- To inform the employees about their performance and achievements.
- To strengthen the authorization structure of the organization.
Limitations BBA Business Communication Notes
Downward communication suffers from the following problems:
- Delay: As the line of communication is very longer downward communication is a time-consuming process. A message sent by the chief executives might reach the clerical staff when it is no longer significant or relevant.
- Too much or too little Information: Some superiors talk too much while others talk too less. When a manager transmits too much information to his subordinates, he may create confusion or may leak confidential information.
- Filtering: Most of the downward communication is oral. A large part of the information is lost during transit because some of it is retained at every level. Research reveals that 80 per cent of the information is lost when transmitted downward through five levels of management hierarchy. The lowest level worker does not receive the complete message sent by the chief manager.
- Distortion: In downward communication line of communication are often long. The message is screened at every successive level. Frequent twisting distorts the message and by the time it reaches its destination, its meaning may not be what the sender intends
- Built-in-Resistance: Downward communication often require a change in the work routine attitudes of subordinates. It is also authoritarian in nature as subordinates do not participate in deciding it. Therefore, downward communication generally causés resentment and faces resistance from employees.
Upward or upstream communication means the flow of information and ideas from a lower level of authority (subordinates) to a higher level (superiors)…
For Example: A branch manager may send quarterly reports to the regional manager on the performance of the branch. Upward communication can be in the form of both written and oral message which contain suggestions, grievances, complaints, appeals etc.
Importance BBA Business Communication Notes
Upwards communication plays a vital role in the successful functioning of an organisation in the following ways:
- Feedback: Upward communication provides valuable feedback to managers. With the help of this feedback, they can judge whether the subordinates have understood and followed the orders and instructions issued to them. Managers also receive useful information.
- Release of Tension: Upward communication provides the employees, an outlet to vent their pent up emotions and grievance. When managers patiently and sympathetically listen to the problems and complaints of employee, the employee feels happy and satisfied.
- Suggestions: Managers can get constructive suggestions and innovative ideas through upward communication. When these suggestions are implemented and rewarded, employees get a feeling of participation.
- Mutual Co-operation: Upward communication helps to create greater harmony and mutual understanding between management and employees. Cohesion and mutual trust result in cordial industrial relations.
- Change : When employees communicate freely with their suppliers they do not resist new ideas as their attitudes become positive. They not only accept new schemes readily but even work to make them successful.
Limitations BBA Business Communication Note
Upward communication suffers from the following drawbacks :
- Status : Quite often subordinates are reluctant to speak freely to their superiors due to fear of authority. Upward communication does not have a smooth flow as it has to move against the force of gravity:
- Reflection on Efficiency : Employees hesitate to communicate their problems to their superiors as such communication might be considered as a siege of their incompetence. For instance, if a branch manager complains to the area manager that the staff at the branch is hostile, the area manager might feel that the branch manager himself is incompetent in handling his staff.
- Inattention : Superiors might be too impatient or too proud to listen carefully to their subordinates. When the employees find that the superiors do not listen them patiently and sympathetically, the employees stop talking or writing freely to the superiors.
- Distortion : Some managers get angry when unpleasant facts are communicated to them. In such cases employee tend to communicate when the boss likes to hear rather then what is true.
- Improper Channel: Some employees become too bold or impatient. They directly approach the top authorities with their complaint and suggestions by passing to their immediate boss. Officers who have been bypassed feel slighted and top authorities becomes suspicious of workers intentions. As a result labor-management relation may be spoiled.
Q. 6. What is effective communication? Give its significances.
Ans. Effective Communication: The success of a business is much dependent on effective communication. Effective and timely communication of values, competition, technology how. government regulation and other important information relating to the business environment is very much necessary for the very existence and success of the business. It is a well-accepted fact that effective communication is necessary to make an industrial organization effective. Significance of effective communication may be summarised as follows:
- Life Blood of Management: Effective communication is as important to management as blood is to body. With the help of effective communication, a manager is able to give practical shape to many of his plans and objectives. With effective communication,, he can convince other people with his policies and decisions. As the management is an art of getting things done through other people, it is communication that educates personnel working in the organization with the desire of the management.
- Helps in Planning: Effective communication provides facts and figures of past and present for effective planning. Communication is the only medium to express and transit all the orders, guidelines, suggestions and sentiments. Effective communication is also needed to implement the planned programs successfully.
- Effective in Decision-making: Crucial decisions have to be taken at every step in business organization and at different levels of management. Information required for the decision process are collected through effective communication only. Managerial decisions are put into practice with the help of effective communication. Objectives and goals cannot be achieved unless the top management can effectively communicate to the lower levels.
- Basis of Direction and Control: In a business organization, the employees come to know what their co-workers are doing by communication. The managers give orders, instructions, warnings, and advice to the subordinates and receive information and suggestions from the departmental heads, supervisors and workers through effective communication. Effective communication will also prove helpful to take control of the works of different workers.
- Improves Human Relations: In modern days, the emphasis is on the recognition of the dignity of labor and authority. Workers are not to be treated as a commodity. Effective communication helps in developing and maintaining human relations in the organization. It develops a feeling of dignity and self-respect among all employees.
- Basis of Co-ordination: In order to achieve the desired objectives, it is necessary to coordinate the efforts of labor engaged in the various activities of production and the organization. Co-ordination requires mutual understanding about the organizational goals and the mode of their accomplishment and the interrelationship between the works being performed by various individuals. This can all be achieved only through effective communication. According to William H Newman: “Good communication aids in coordinating activities.”
- Maximum Production at Minimum Cost: Every organization aims at getting the maximum output at the minimum cost and for this purpose, it requires an effective internal and external communication system. In the external field an efficient communication system helps in improving public opinion, having contacts with government departments and getting market information in order to achieve the primary goals. It can seek co-operation of the workers by telling them the goals of the organization and the ways to achieve them.
- Promotion of Industrial Peace: Peace is necessary in the organization to achieve more production. Long strikes and lockouts bring the firms at the verge of insolvency. The employees should get proper information about the organisation at regular intervals to avoid misunderstandings. Effective communication helps in managing information between employees to top management.
- Motivation: Effective communication enables management to change the attitudes of the subordinates and to motivate, influence and satisfies them. Good communication assists the workers in their adjustment with the physical and social aspects of work. It is the basis of a participative and democratic pattern of management.
- Basis for Leadership: Effective communication is the basis of leadership. Leader and his followers, both can create mutual understanding, trust and harmony with the help of effective communication.
Q. 7. Discuss the various theories of communication.
Ans. Theories of Communication: A theory is a set of statements, including some lawlike generalizations. So far as social sciences are concerned, we do not have fully formalized well-articulated theories, but we do have some partially formalized theories.
In communication, we have many theories. The atmosphere, limitations, and assumptions under which message is transmitted are known as theories of communication. Theories of communication can be classified in two ways:
- Theories propounded to create socio-cultural environments.
- theories based on the ideas of different scholars.
Theories Propounded to Create Socio-Cultural Environments
(a) Communist theory of communication: This theory follows the pm It was propounded in 1917 in USSR. This theory is based on the following principles :
(i) The voice of workers will be heard prominently.
(ii) The opposition should be made against the exploitation of man by man.
(iii) Public will play supreme role in the construction of a strong nation.
(iv) The interest of the nation will remain supreme.
This theory was not only followed in USSR. but in China. Korea, Cuba and many other countries.
(b) Islamic theory of communication: This theory follows the conservative Principles of Muslims. It is based on ‘Ouran’ the religious book of Muslims. This theory follows the preachings of Mohammed Sahib. This theory is popular mostly in middle east and other Muslim countries.
(C) Chinese theory of communication: This theory laid focus on respect, dedications and faithfulness towards the nation. Instead of revolution. peace is the main story o communication policy. Chinese theory of communication is based on India’s principles of Panchsheet.
(d) The Christian theory of communication: This theory is based on free thinking freedom and dedication towards God. It is a very popular theory that serves as the foundation communication system in Europian countries. It is based on human sensitivity and service quality in a man. This theory emphasizes that any new thing conducive to human welfare should be communicated to the people.
(e) Vedic theory of communication: This theory is based on ‘Vedas’ the supreme religious books of Hindus. It is also known as the oldest theory of communication. This theory considers and recognizes Indian culture and traditions and is based upon traditional values. It is based on ‘Gurukul. ‘Guru-Disciple’ form of education
(f) Conservative theory of communication: This theory emphasizes one-way communication based on the pretext of religion and caste. Many restrictions are imposed on communication and people cannot express their ideas freely. Restriction is also imposed on people’s movements, their education and their way of living. The women are not allowed to act on their own.
(g) The liberal theory of communication: This theory supports the full freedom of communication The people have full freedom to communicate their ideas and message against government and society. The women are allowed to act on their own.
2. Theories based on the Ideas of Different Scholars
(a) ‘Aristotle’s theory of communication: This theory was propounded by social scientist Aristotle. theory states that persuasive techniques of communication can change the thinking process of the receiver. Sender, message and receiver are the main components of communication, This theory gave main importance to the sender who is the source of communication. Thus, it is a one-sided theory.
(b) Laswell’s theory of communication: This theory was supported by Laswell and is also considered as one-sided theory. It also laid emphasis on the sender. This theory states that the sender can canger the thinking process of the receiver by using appropriate channel of communication.
(c) Shommon and Weaver’s theory of communication: This theory was introduced by Shammon and Weaver. This theory says that message should never be transmitted in its raw form. The message should first be encoded and then transmitted to the receiver so that he is in a position to understand the massage. This theory also laid emphasis on feedback and realized the presence of noise.
(d) Katz-Lazarsfeld theory of communication: This theory was introduced mainly for mass communication, therefore it is also known as mass communication theory. According to this theory, er encodes the message and transmits it by some appropriate channel to an opinion leader. This leader relays this message to the public. Message, sender and the group leader are the three main components of this theory.
(e) Berlo’s theory of communication: This theory gave emphasis on perception. This theory states that the sender encodes the message and transmits it with the help of a suitable channel. How the message is received depends upon the knowledge and perception of the receiver. Perception of receiver plays a vital role in this theory.
(f) The modern theory of communication: Modern theory of communication presents the communication process in a cycle form. Accordingly to this theory, a message is transmitted to the receiver and the receiver expresses his response after receiving the message. In such a way information or message is transmitted to the sender from the receiver in the form of feedback. However, some obstacles in communication process may cause communication loss. These obstacles create problems in understanding the message.
Q. 8. Explain in detail the various functions of business communication.
Ans. Communication is the lifeline of any organization. It serves four major functions that can be stated as follows:
- Information: The first and foremost function of communication is to provide information. This function is performed in many ways. Before providing or passing information, one has to receive, collect or sift information from various sources, both external and internal, and through various media, verbal or non-verbal, body language or paralanguage, sign language or audiovisual aids, books, journals, newspapers, advertisements, and brochures, etc.
The information thus gathered is of vital importance to individuals and groups. It helps them to make decisions by identifying, analyzing and evaluating the data, and considering alternative choices. In other words, policy decisions can be taken only when information is available.
Education, research, and development depend on information. Education is an ongoing process. No organization can really grow unless the people vitally involved in it have some kind of continuing education’. All senior managers nowadays keep abreast of the latest developments in their respective areas. It is also to be noted that no information is insular. In one way or another, directly or indirectly, all different areas of interest, especially in the business world, are interrelated. That is why almost all people in business, whether entrepreneurs or managers, organize and participate in seminars, conferences and refresher courses.
Proper transmission of information is also of great educational value to employees. Unless they are given useful information from time to time they are likely to remain ignorant, uncultivated, or inadequately equipped.
Information made available to the world outside the organization also educates the public. Advertisements, special articles, information talks, etc. play an important role in this regard.
- Control: The next very important function of communication is to control ‘member behavior’ in several ways. Every organization has a hierarchical system and formal guidelines that the employees are supposed to follow. When for example, the employees are required to follow their job description or instructions, or to comply with company policies, communication is performing a control function. This very function also gives the employees their code of conduct. It is generally expected of the employees to first communicate their grievances or complaints to their immediate boss. They have, in this way, to follow the formal channel of communication.
But, at the same time, it must also be pointed out that informal communication also controls behavior. By talking informally in groups the workers lay down the norms to be followed. It is not always necessary for the bosses to formally issue instructions, impose do’s and dont’s or chalk out norms of behavior. In fact, it is now becoming more and more explicit that informal communication exercises greater control than formal communication.
- Motivation: In the words of Robbins, “Communication fosters motivation by clarifying to employees what is to be done, how well they are doing, and what can be done to improve performance if it’s subpar… The formation of specific goals, feedback on progress toward the goals, and reinforcement of desired behavior all stimulate motivation and require communication.”
All business is goal-oriented. All possible efforts have to be made to achieve a target within a well-thought-out framework of time. For this purpose, it is necessary that the team of workers puts in their very best efforts. In other words they have to be motivated. According to the Collins Cobuild Dictionary, “If you are motivated to do something, you are caused to feel determined to achieve something and willing to work hard in order to succeed. So you have first got to motivate the children and then to teach them.” The same logic applies to the workers in an organization.
The employees/workers have first of all to be told what they are expected to do and how. And then, merely telling is not enough. Victor Kiam, a famous American entrepreneur, and writer for the corporate world, puts this question to himself: “Am I willing to lead by example?” and goes on to answer thus: “You can’t ask your workers to give their all if your idea of a rough day is two hours in the office and six on the golf course. I never ask an employee to do something I’m not willing to do, and I work even harder than they do.” After all actions speak louder than words. .
The concept of rewards and punishment immediately becomes relevant here. It, however, must be noted that rewards and incentives prove more effective and productive than punishments. If the workers are kept happy, given encouragement and suitably rewarded both in cash and kind, the enterprise. Every modern entrepreneur/manager knows the importance of positive attitude, empathic listening, words of encouragement and cash rewards, and rewards given in the form of holiday trips, furnishing allowances, quick promotions and so on. Many Indian as well as multinational companies in India are now taking their workers to holiday resorts and sending managers along with their families to Europe, Far East, and such other scenic places. All this is geared to motivate them to ‘earn’ their perks, bonuses and holidays. It enir perks. bonuses and holidays. It enhances the value and the image of the organization.
- Emotional Expression and Interdependence: The workgroup is a primary source of social interaction. The communication that takes place within the group is of vital importance in the sense that it gives them the best opportunity to share their frustrations as well as feelings of satisfaction. Communication, in this way, provides them a release for their feelings, and that is the fulfillment of an important social need.