- 1 BBA Organisation Behaviour Introduction Notes
- 1.1 BBA 2nd Year Notes Personality Introduction
- 1.1.1 An Introduction
- 1.1.2 CONCEPT OF PERSONALITY
- 1.1.3 Determinants of Personality
- 1.1.4 Development of Personality
- 1.1.5 Assessment of Personality
- 1.1.6 Assessment of Humanistic Perspective
- 1.1.7 AN INTRODUCTION
- 1.1.8 Concept (BBA 2nd sem. Notes)
- 1.1.9 Sensation and Perception
- 1.1.10 Perception Process
- 1.1.11 Perceptual Selectivity
- 1.1.12 External Factors in Perceptual Selectivity
- 1.1.13 Internal factors in Perceptual Selectivity
- 1.1.14 MANAGERIAL APPLICATIONS OF PERCEPTION
- 1.2 Nature and Features of Leadership Organisation Behaviour Notes
BBA Organisation Behaviour Introduction Notes
BBA Organisation Behaviour Introduction Notes:- All BBA 2nd semester students’s we are provide the study material and r of BBA . and in this article you can find few year notes. BBA Organisation Behavior notes 2020 today our team presented BBA Organisation Behavior previous year question paper for you practise. and special links related to the BBA Organisation Behavior and all subject question paper and study material. we provided mock paper, question paper, simple paper, unsold paper last five year question paper.
Introduction of Individual Behaviour
individuals come to work in the organisation and get integrated as per the roles they occupy in the organisation. therefore they require separate attention. Individuals do not work in isolation. for most of the task people work in team. Therefore a big amount of attention is given to needs of individual, formation of teams, their dynamics and different ways to make them more effective. our understanding of human dynamics has thus become very complex as well as crucial.
Concept of Behaviour (BBA 2nd Year notes)
Though different behavioural sciences have defined behaviour differently it simply means a response to a certain stimuli which is observable and measurable activity of human beings is know as overt behaviour. It consists of activities such as decision making, physical processes like working on machines etc. and the activities which non observable and immeasurable are know as covert behaviour. It consist of feelings, perception etc. Covert behaviour is responsible for shaping and influencing overt behaviour. therefore, understanding of total behaviour is important.
ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT HUMAN BEHAVIOUR
There are four basic assumptions about human beings which are foundation of organisational behaviour. These are :
- Individual differences
- The whole person
- Causation of behaviour
- Human dignity
Determinants of Human Behaviour
The nature of human behaviour is complex and in understanding the behaviour of people they should be studied in their totality by taking a total man concept. This concept emphasizes that man has a combination of different factors affecting his behaviour. The human behaviour in an organisation is what a person does, how he acts, how he reacts, how he relates himself to others in the organisation. The behaviour process involves analysis of environment factors, individual dimensions of behaviour, physical and job variables like method of work design of work, inter group dimensions like leadership motivation, reward system, etc that effects human behaviour.
There are various factors which determine individual behaviour. They are as follows :
- Personal Factors : They are categorized into biographical factors and learned characteristics.
- Age : The relationship between age and performance is an important issue affecting performance psychologically younger people are expected to be more energetic, innovative, ambitious and risk taking whereas older people are supposed to be conservative and have their own ways and less adaptable. The employee turnover is high among younger employees rather than old employees which are more stabilized as young people are like to change jobs to avail better opportunities but as they grow old the chance of quitting the job is quite less.
- Gender : Research has proved that there may be few but important differences between males and females which affect their job performance. there are certain characteristics like problem solving ability skill, leadership, learning ability. There appears to be hardly any male and female differences but there are certain other areas like turnover and absenteeism where male and female respond differently. As tendency to abstain from work willing to confirm to authority whereas men are more aggressive. Also turnover rate more in female employee and had to quit their jobs and change into part time jobs to look after their children and other family responsibilitities.
BBA 2nd Year Notes Personality Introduction
Personality factors are extremely important in organisation setting. personality is one of the major psychological factors affecting the human behaviour. Personality is sum total of an individuals psycho-physical system that determine his or her behaviour in a given environment/situation. Personality takes whole man concept because it affects various psychological processes. it is an organized consistent pattern of perception of the “I”, around which the individual interacts and has experiences. Psychologists have attempted to describe personality in terms of standard traits.
CONCEPT OF PERSONALITY
The term personality has been derived from Latin term “persona” which means “to speak through” the Latin term denotes the mask which actors used to wear in ancient Greek and Rome therefore personality refers to how people influence others through their external appearances. Personality is a set of traits and characteristics, habit patterns and conditioned responses to certain stimuli that formulate the impression and individual makes upon other. Thus personality may come out as warm and friendly, arrogant and aggressive. Personality can be defined as :
According to Fred Luthans, “Personality means how a person affects others and how he understands and views himself as well as pattern of inner and outer measurable traits and the person-situation interaction.”
According to Floyd L Ruch, “Personality includes external appearances and behaviour, inner awareness of self as a permanent organizing force and the particular pattern of organisation of measurable traits, both inner and outer,”
Determinants of Personality
Personality denotes psychological characteristics of a person that influence his behaviour towards goal achievement. it is sum total of ways in which individual interacts with others. it is very important to know various factors that are responsible for modificaiton and development of a given personality. The relationship between supervisors and employees is reflected in their personality. Managers can deal more effectively with subordinates and employees if they understand how individual’s personality develops. personality is composed of several characteristics which are comparatively permanent and influence human behaviour. Personality is influenced by several factors such as family characteristics, learning social influences, psychological features, etc.
These characteristic can be classified into four broad categories :
BBA Organisation Behaviour Introduction Notes
- Biological factors
- familty and social factors.
- Cultural factors
- situational factors
Development of Personality
There are specific psychological and physiological stages that occur in the development of human personality. This stage-approach has been theoretical in nature. Many psychologists have contributed to the stage approach. The prominent among them include freud, Erekson, Alfred, Carl Jung, and Levinson. Among several theories, the more prominent are: type, psychoanalytic, trait, self and social learning theory.
|SIXTEEN PRIMARY TRAITS|
|2. Less intelligent||More intelligent|
|3. Affected by feelings||Emotionally stable|
|8. Tough Minded||Sensitive|
|11. Fort right||Shrewd|
|12. Self assured||Apprehensive|
|14. Group Dependent||Self-sufficient|
Assessment of Personality
You learnt about different theories of personality. These were the psychoanalytic, trait, social-cognitive, humanities and the Indian approach to personality, based on gunas. If we wish to determine aspects of a person’s personality based on a particular theory, there are specific techniques for assessing those. For example, if you wish to know about the dominant traits in a person, e.g., whether he is an extrovert or introvert, there are specific ways developed by pchyologists, to get this information. Similarly, if we wish to know about the unconscious aspects of a person’s personality, we will have to use psychoanalytic ways of assessing the same. In this lesson you will learn about the different ways of personality assessment.
Assessment of Humanistic Perspective
BBA Organisation Behaviour Introduction Notes :
As you have learnt, the humanistic approach to personality focuses on how a person experiences her/his world. Therefore, assessment here is concerned with understanding the perception of a person about his/ her life situation and experience. A number of descriptive sentences, those which describe him/her in an accurate way (e.g., “I am a confident person”, “I am often nervous” , “I am a sincere and hard working student, etc.) Another approach focuses on a persons willingness to express his/her inner nature or self to others. This approach is based on the understanding that the tendency for very his or very low level of self-disclosure are both an indication of emotional immaturity.
The concept of perception is very closely related to the personality of a person. we know that people working in an organisation differ in terms of physical characteristics, background characteristics (such as training and education) and personality traits. one of the consequences of such differences is that people do not view the things in the same way. perception is described as a person’s view of reality. every person computer, human beings also are information processors with one basic difference. while all the computer process a piece of information in the identical manner with identical output, human beings may differ because of their differences and uniqueness. people often see the same phenomenon differently both within the organisational context and outside the organisation. in order to understand why people see the same situation differently one has to understand perception and its different aspects.
Concept (BBA 2nd sem. Notes)
Perception is the cognitive process. In terms of S-O-B-C model perception is the cognitive process which involves the O (organism) selecting, organizing, and interpreting the S (stimulus). Thus, perception is the process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting or attaching meaning to the events happening in the environment. This input of meaningful information results in decisions and actions. It is the result of a complex interaction of various senses such as feeling, seeing, hearing, thinking and comparing with known aspects of life in order to make some sense of the world around us. The quality or accuracy of a person’s perception is an important factor in determining the quality of the decisions and action.
BBA Organisation Behaviour Introduction Notes
“Perception may be defined as a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.”
“Perception can be defined as the process of receiving, selection, organizing, interpreting, checking and reacting to sensory stimuli or data”
Sensation and Perception
There is confusion between sensation and perception as both are the cognitive process and both are beads of the same string. But there is a great deal of difference between the two terms. Sensation is immediate and direct response of the sensory organs to the simple stimuli (an advertisement, a package, a brand name). human sensitivity refers to the experience of sensation. Sensitivity to stimuli varies with the quality of an individual’s sensory receptors (e.g., eyesight or hearing) and the amount, of intensity of the stimuli to which it is exposed. For example a blind person may have more highly developed sense of hearing than an average sighted person and may be able to hear sounds that every person can not. Another example of sensation may be reaction of eye to color. Ear to sound and so on.
BBA Organisation Behaviour Introduction Notes
Perception refers to interpretation of sensory data in other words; sensation involves detecting the presence of a stimulus where as perception involves understanding what the stimulus means. For example when we see something. The visual stimulus is the light energy that is reflected from external world and eye becomes the sensory. The visual images of the external object becomes perception when it is interpreted in the visual context of the brain. Therefore visual perception refers to interpreting the image of external world projected on the retina of the eye and constructing the model of three dimensional worlds. Perception classifies the stimulus which is on the past experience (learning, feelings and motives) therefore perception is determined by both physiological and psychological characteristics of the organism.
Perception is a process of receiving and interpreting environmental stimuli. In a world filled with complex environmental stimuli, our perceptions help us categorize according to our interpretation of the reality we see. In other words, it is screen or filter through which information passes before having an effect on people. The actual transformation of these inputs through the perceptual mechanism of selection, organization, and interpretation can be treated as the throughputs, and the resultant opinions, feelings, attitudes, etc. which ultimately influence our behaviour, can be viewed as the perceptual outputs.
Perception is a selective process as people can sense only limited amount of information in the environment, they are very selective by nature. By selection process certain aspects of stimuli are screened out and others are admitted. Those which are admitted remains in the awareness of people and those which are screened out fall below the threshold. This is known as perceptual selectivity.
External Factors in Perceptual Selectivity
The external factors consist of environmental influences and are in the form of characteristics of perceptual inputs or stimuli. These characteristics may distinguish a particular stimulus from other stimulus of the same group. Such characteristics may be in the form of size, intensity, repetition, novelty and familiarity, contrast and motion. Their impact on the perceptual selectivity is as follows:
- Novelty and Familiarity
Internal factors in Perceptual Selectivity
- Response disposition
- Perceptual defence
MANAGERIAL APPLICATIONS OF PERCEPTION
The understanding of human perception, particularly in the organizational setting, is important in understanding and controlling the behaviour, in an organizational setting, perception is important in various activities. However, there are three major areas which require special attention so far as the perceptual accuracy is concerned. These are: interpersonal working relationship, selection of new employees, and performance appraisal.
- Selection of employee
- Interpersonal working relationship
- Performance appraisal
- Delegation of authority
- Organizational change and development
- Project management
Nature and Features of Leadership Organisation Behaviour Notes
BBA Organisation Behaviour Introduction Notes
Leadership An Introduction
Leadership an important element of the directing function of management. Whenever there is an organization group of people working towards a common goal, some type of leadership becomes essential. It is a psychological process of influencing followers or subordinates and providing guidance to them. It is always related to a situation which means a leader may be effective in one situation while ineffective in another. To be effective, a leader should change his leadership style depending upon the requirement of the situation. Leadership is an essential ingredient for successful organization. The successful organization has one major attribute that sets it apart from unsuccessful organization is dynamic and effective leadership. Pattern is followed. This makes managers essential to understand and identify the various styles available. Leadership is the ability to build up confidence and zeal to create an urge in them to be led. To be a successful leader, a manager must possess the qualities of foresight, drive, initiative, self-confidence and personal; integrity. Different situations may demand different types of leadership.
Nature and Features of Leadership
- It is a process of Influence. The basic purpose of leadership is to influence the behaviour attitude and beliefs of his followers or subordinates.
- It involves interaction between the leader and the followers.
- It implies pursuit of common goals in the interest of individuals as well as the group as a whole.
- Leadership is related to a situation. When we talk of leadership, it is always related to a particular situation, at a given point of time and under a specific set of circumstances.
- It exists only with followers. If there are no followers, there is no leadership.
Leadership Style In Indian Organization
Indian leadership are more directives and hierachial than their Western counter parts, and less concerned about appearing open to the input of others and building consensus. Indian leaders are ranked as more strategic, demonstrating a tendency to make longer term, holistic and analytical view of their businesses. Indian leaders show significantly lower level of ambiguity tolerance, empathy, energy and confidence as compared to western “Best in Class” leaders. This indicates that they may be less comfortable with uncertainty. Perhaps less sensitive to the feeling of others and they may be even less willing to take risks.
There is no uniformity in the attitude, personality and educational background of Indian organizations. We find just literate to managers with fully qualified professional managers.
It has been found that authorization leadership is preferred by employees in Indian organizations. This style of leadership is characterized by strong task orientation and high personal involvement and effort by leader.
But, with the changing composition workforce, a different leadership style is required to better utilize the skill and expertise of younger generation. Younger generation is more educated, ambitious, therefore consideration, would appear more appropriate for today’s Indian organization.
There are contain other changes at workplace like unionism, professionalization of managers, rapid industrial growth and technological changes that demands for more participation. Therefore, more towards participation has already started in many companies of india. But, it has to be emphasized that one particulars style of leadership is not suitable in all kind of situations. Leadership style is also based on workculture. Therefore, the workculture has to be changed as per the participative style because authoritarian leadership style is unlikely to succeed in future.
Transactional relationship involves exchange relationship between the leader and the followers. Traditional theory of leadership, Ohio State studies. Fiedler’s model and path-goal theory are all transactional in nature. Thus, whereas transactional leadership involves an exchange relationship between the leaders and followers. Transformational leadership is a prescription in mediocrity, whereas transformational leadership leads to superior performance in organizations facing demands fro renewal and change.
Transactional leadership is receiving more attention these days because of the dramatic changes many organizations are going through and the critical importance of transformational leaders in transformaing or changing organizations successfully. Empirical research has shown positive relationships between transformational leadership and organizational performance.
Leadership Vs Management
It can be observed that leadership and management are related but they are not the same. A person can be effective manager, leader, both, or neither. ‘Management’ is the term used to represent planning, organization, staffing, directing and controlling the organisaitonal operations to realize certain goals. But leadership is a process of influence which means the ability to affect the perceptions, attitudes or behaviour of others. It is a part of management, but not all of it. A manager is required to plan and organize, for example, but all we ask of a leader is that he gets others follow him. Leadership differs from management in terms of the emphasis that is put on four activities-creating an agenda developing a human network for achieving the agenda, executing plans, and outcomes of activities. While leadership emphasizes changes in these activities, management believes in status quo.
BBA Organisation Behaviour Question Paper 2018-2020