BBA Business Ethic Management as a science and an art
BBA Business Ethic Management as a science and an art:-
MANAGEMENT AS A SCIENCE AND AN ART
The controversy with regard to management, as to whether it is a science or art is very old. Specification of exact nature of management as science or art or both is necessary to specify the process of learning of management. Management is not easy. It is not an exact science. In fact, it is seen as an art that people master with experience.. When viewed as an art, management is remarkable, but natural expression of human behavior. It is intuitive, creative and flexible. Managers are leaders and artists who are able to develop unique alternatives and novel ideas about their organizations needs. They are attuned to people and events around them and learn to anticipate the turbulent twists and turns around them.
However, artistry in management is neither exact nor precise. Artists interpret experience and express it in forms that can be felt, understood and appreciated by others. Art allows for emotion, subtlety and ambiguity. An artist frames the world so that others can see new possibilities.
Science is extraordinary. It is a method of doing things. It is the organized systematic expertise that gathers knowledge about the world and condenses the knowledge into testable laws and principles. When science is done correctly, it can advise us in all of our day-to-day decisions and actions. The Process of scientific theory construction and confirmation can be viewed as involving the following steps:-
- The formulation of a problem or complex of problems based on observation.
- The construction of theory to provide answers to the problem or problems based on inductions from observations.
- The deduction of specific hypotheses from the theory.
- The recasting of the hypothesis in terms of specific measures and the operations required to test the hypothesis.
- The devising of the actual situation to test the theorem and
- The actual testing in which confirmation does or does not occur.
The artistic talents of the manager can be enriched by the usage of scientific tools. The artist in any manager definitely has an edge. His creativity and productivity can be magnified by using the correct scientific methods. The art of management existed long before automation. Without a doubt, science has made management easier. But focusing only on the science may lead to a shift of focus of the entire team and create overheads. The success of managers depends on how effectively they can use scientific aid to enhance their artistic skills. Medicine engineering, accountancy, and the like require skills on the part of the practitioners and can only be acquired through practice. Management is no exception.
Art is concerned with particle knowledge and personal skill for doing out the desired results. In management, a manager should have practical knowledge & skill. Otherwise, his performance will be adversely affected. Management is a way of doing a specific action while doing the function of art is to achieve success in a given action.
According to George R. Terry, “Art is bringing about of a desired result through application of skill.” Thus, art has 5 essential features.
- Practical Knowledge
- Personal Skill
iii. Concrete Result
- Constructive Skill
- Improvement through practice
These 5 functions of art also belong to the management. When a manager uses his management skill then he must have practical knowledge for solving managerial problem. A manager also has power to face the problem to find out the result, which is only possible when he/she has constructive skills. To improve the managerial skill, managerial work should be done on regular basis because regularity and practice make the work effective. So, we can say that manager is an artist since he/she posses the skill of getting the work done through and with the people. Therefore, it can be concluded that manager is an artist and management is bound to be an art.
Management as a Science
Science refers to an organized and systematic body of knowledge acquired by mankind through observation, experimentation, and also based on some universal principles, concepts, and theories. Principles of science are developed through testing & observation. With the help of the concept of science it can safely be concluded that management is also a science because it is based upon certain principles and concerned as a systematized body of knowledge, observation, test, and experiment is a science, however, it is not exactly as physics, chemistry, biology, etc.
Before trying to examine whether management. is a science or not we have to understand the nature of science. Science may be described as a systematized body of knowledge pertaining to an act of study and contains some general truths explaining past events or phenomena. It is Systematized in the sense that relationships between variables and limits have been ascertained and underlying principle discovered. Three important characteristics of science are.
- It is a systematized body of knowledge and uses scientific methods for Observation.
- Its principles are evolved on the basis of continued observation and experiment.
- Its principles are exact and have universal applicability without any limitations.
Judging from these criteria, it may be observed that management to is a systematized body of knowledge and its principles have evolved on the basis of observation not necessarily through the use of scientific methods. However, if we consider science a discipline in the sense of our natural science one is able to experiment by keeping all factors and varying one at a time. In natural science, it is not only possible to repeat the same conditions over and over again, which enables the scientist to experiment and to obtain proof. This kind of experimentation-cannot is accompanied in the art of management since we are dealing with the human element. This puts a limitation on management as a science. It may be designated as ‘inexact’ or ‘soft science‘
MANAGEMENT PROCESS or SCOPE OF MANAGEMENT
Briefly, there are 5 core functions that constitute the Scope of Management functions or the process of management. They are Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing and Controlling.
Scope /Process of Management
- Planning:- The first management function in scope of management functions that managers must perform is PLANNING. Within this function plan is created to accomplish the mission and vision of the business entity. Under the mission is considered the reason for the establishment, while under the vision is considered where business entity is aiming. The plan must define the time component and to plan necessary resources to fulfill the plan. Accordingly plan of organization is developed together with required personnel; method of leading people is defined and controlling instruments for monitoring the realization of plans. The guiding idea in the making of mentioned items is the realization of the objectives and fulfilling the mission and vision of the business entity. Planning may be broadly defined as a concept of executive action that embodies the skills of anticipating, influencing and controlling the nature and direction of change. Each organization should make a good first step, a good plan, because without it the organization takes a great risk of mistakes and thus compromising their business.
- Organizing:- Organizing is the second function manager, where he had previously prepared plan, establish an appropriate organizational structure in business organization. In part, it determines the ranges of management, type of organizational structure, authority in the organization, types and ways of delegating and developing lines of communication. The organization and its subsystems are placed under the plan, which was created as part of functions, ie planning. Organizing basically involves analysis of activities to be performed for achieving organizational objectives, grouping them into various departments and sections so that these can be assigned to various individuals and delegating them appropriate authority so that they can carry their work properly. In performing construction and organization in particular must pay attention to formal and informal lines of communication, because if these lines are not adequately monitored the possibility of collision between them, resulting in delays and / or even failure to achieve the goal.
- Staffing:- Staffing, as the next function of management, consists of a selection of appropriate staff for the organization to reach a goal / goals easier and more efficient. According to today‘s experience is well known that it is difficult to financially evaluate, quality and efficient staff. Staff is one of the more valuable, if not the most valuable resource in any successful organization. For this reason, good planning of personnel policies, as a function of management, and corresponding execution of that selection of high quality people is becoming increasingly important. The task of this management function is to set rules related to employment and personnel policies. Staffing basically involves matching jobs and individuals. This may require a number of functions like manpower planning, recruitment, selection, training and development, performance appraisal, promotion transfer, etc. The responsibility for staffing rests on all managers at all levels of the organization. It increases as one goes up in the organizational hierarchy. In order to facilitate the effective performance of staffing functions, a personnel department is created in large organizations.
- Directing:- Direction is an important managerial function through which management initiates actions in the organization. It is a function of management that is related with instructing, guiding and inspiring human factors in the organization to achieve organization objectives. It is a function to be performed at every level of management. Direction is a continuous process and it continues throughout the life of the organization It initiates at the top level in the organization and follows to the bottom through the hierarchy. It emphasizes that a subordinate is to be directed by his own superior only. Direction has dual objectives. On the one hand, it aims in getting things done by subordinates and, on the other, to provide superiors opportunities for some more important work which their subordinates cannot do.
- Controlling:- Control is any process that guides activity towards some pre-determined goals. It can be applied in any field such as price control, distribution control, pollution control etc. It is an element of management process and is defined as the process of analyzing whether actions are being taken as planned and taking corrective actions to make these to conform to planning. Control process tries to find out deviations between planed performance and actual performance and to suggest corrective actions wherever these are needed. Controlling is a forward looking function as one can control the future happenings and not the past. Every manager has to perform the control function in the organization. It is a continuous process and the control system is a co-ordinate integrated system.
Performance of various managerial functions in an integrated way ensures a fair degree of coordination among individuals and departments. Co-ordination is related to the synchronization of efforts which have amount, time, and direction attributes. Co-ordination is thus treated as the essence of management.