BBA 1st Semester Fundamental of Management Notes
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BBA 1st Semester Fundamental of Management Notes
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Leadership Principal of Co ordination Notes
Leadership (BBA Notes)
Leadership is the process of influencing others towards the accomplishment of goals. It is the ability of a manager to induce subordinates to work with confidence.
Leadership is a process of stimulating members of the group towards the achievement of predecided goals.
A manager attempts to achieve co-ordination by performing his function as discussed below :
- Co-ordination through Planning : Planning facilitates co-ordination by properly integrating the various plan through mutual discussion, exchange of ideas, etc. e.g., If the adversiting manager is to plan his advertising campaign, it would be helpful if he discusses the plan with production manager, the sales manager and finance manager and so on. In this way, as the advertising managers perform his function of planning, he is attempting to achieve co-ordination in the effort of other managers.
- Co-ordination through Organisation : When a manager, group and assigns various activities to subordinate and when he creates department co-ordination is uppermost in his mind. By placing related activities in the same administrative unit, co-ordination will be facilitated.
- Co-ordination through Staffing : A manager should bear in mind that the right number of personnel in various positions with right type of education and skill are taken. This will ensure right persons on right jobs. Shortage of personnel will also be avoided.
- Co-ordination through Directing : When a manager directs, he is also trying to achieve co-ordination. The purpose of giving orders, instructing, coaching and guiding the subordinates is to achieve co-ordinates of their activities for attainment of enterprise objectives in the most efficient way.
- Co-ordination through Controlling : While performing the function of controlling the manager can know whether or not the current activities are going on as per plan. Such evaluation of operation help to synchronize the efforts of subordinates. If the manager finds that performance is not as planned, he must immediately take action. By doing this he will bring about co-ordination.
Principal of Co-ordination
Co-ordination is crucial for to the success of any organisation. Co-ordination is the process whereby an executive develops an orderly pattern of group effort among his subordinates and secures unity of action in the persuit of common purpose. Co-ordination is a continuous and dynamic process and emphasizes unity of effort to achieve the desired results. Co-ordination is essentially a managerial responsibility Mary parker follett has spelt various principles of co-ordination in the following fashion :
- Principle of direct contact : In the first principle Mary Parker Follet States that co-ordination can be achieved by direct contact among the responsible people concerned. She believes that co-ordination can be easily obtained by direct interpersonal relationships and direct personal communications. Such personal contacts bring about agreement on methods, actions and ultimate achievement of objectives. Direct contacts also help wither away the controversies and misunderstandings. It is based on the principle that co-ordination is better achieved through understanding, not by force, order and coercion.
- Principle of continuity : the fourth principle, advocated by Follett, is that co-ordination is a continuous and never-ending process. It is same timing which must go on all the time in the organisation. Further, co-ordination is involved in every managerial function.
- Principle of early stages : co-ordination should start from the very beginning of planning process. At the time of policy formulation and objective setting, co-ordination can be sought from organisational participants. Obviously, When the members are involved in goal setting, co-ordination problem is ninety percent solved. It is because participative goal setting enables agreement and commitment to organisation goals and there is no question of conflict early stages of planning and policy formulation, becomes difficult to exercise oin the later stages of execution of plans.
- Principle of reciprocal relationship : As the third principle Mary Follett states that all in a situation are reciprocally related. In other words, all the parts influence and are influenced by other parts. For example, when A works with B and he in turn works with C and D, each of the four finds himself influenced by other, influenced by all the people in the total situation. Follett contends that this sort of reciprocal relationship and this sort of inter penetration of every part by every other part, and again by every other part as it has been permeated by all should be the goal of all attempts at co-ordination.
- Principle of self co-ordination : In addition to the four principal listed by Follett above, Brown has emphasized the principal of self co-ordination. According to this principle, when a particular department affects other function or department, it in turn affected by other department or function. This particular department may not be having control over other department. However, if other department are modified in such a fashion that this affects the particular department favourably then self-co-ordination is said to be achieved. For instance there must be co-ordination between the level of production and sales. When the production department alters its total production in such a way as to suit the sales capacity of the marketing department (even before the marketing department makes request to cut down production or to increase production) then self co-ordination is said to have taken place. This of course, requires effective communication across the department this principle is rarely practiced in day-to-day life.
Communication Concept One Day Pattern Notes
The success of a largely depends on how clear he is in his mind about his function and how effectively he can communicate with others.
The effectivess of managerial function depends largely on effectivess of the communication.
Definitions of communication
The term “communication is derived from the latin word communis” which means common, that means if a person communicate with another.
According to Newman, Summer and Warren. “communication is an exchange of facts ideas, opinion or emotions by two or more persons.”
According to Theo Haimann, “ communication is the process of passing information and understanding one person to another.”
Nature of Communication
The basic feature of characteristics of communication are as follows :
- Communication involves at lest two persons-one who send the message and second who receive the message.
- Communication is a two way traffic. The process of communication is not completed unit the message have been understood by receiver. Understanding is an essential part of communication.
- The basic purpose of communication is to create an understanding in the mind of the receiver of information.
- Communication may take several form e.g., order instruction, report, suggestion, grievance, observation, etc. The message may be conveyed by the words spoken or written or gestures.
Elements of Communication
The process of communication consists of the following elements :
- Communicator : The person who conveys the message is known as communicator or sender.
- Message : It is a subject matter of any communication. It may involve any facts, opinion or information. It must exist in the mind of the communicator, if communication is to take place.
- Communication symbols : The sender of information organizes his idea into a series of symbols (words, sign, etc.) which, he feels will communicate to intended receiver.
- Communication channel : The communicator has to choose the channel for sending the information. Communication channel are the media through which the message passes.
- Receiver : The person who receives the message is called receiver. The communication process in incomplete without existence of receiver of the message.
Objective of Communication in Business
- To provide information and understanding which are necessary for group efforts.
- To foster an attitude which is necessary for motivation, co-operation and job satisfaction.
- To prepare the employees for a change by giving them the necessary information.
- To discourage the spread of misinformation, rumors, gossip and release the emotional tension.
- To encourage ideas, suggestions from subordinates for an improvement in the product and work conditions for reduction in time or cost involved and for the avoidance of the waste of raw material.
- To improve labour management relation by keeping both in contact with each other.
- To ensure free exchange of information and ideas as well as assisting all the employees in understanding and accepting the reasonableness of the status and authority of everyone in the organisation.
- To satisfy basic human need as the needs for recognition, self improvement and a sense of belonging.
Importance of Communication in Business
Communication is an essential function and an important problem of management. Since the job of a manager is to secure the willing co-operation of his subordinates in the accomplishment of goals, communication is an indispensable part of management. Communication is a continuous and pervasive activity and a manager spends the major portion of his time in communicating. To be specific, Communication offers the following advantages :
- Basis of Decision Making : Communication is essential for decision making and planning. The quality of managerial decisions depends on the quality of communication (amount and quality of important available to the organisation). At the same time, decisions and plans of management need to be communicated to the subordinates. Effective communication is also helpful in the proper implementation of plans and policies of the management. It is the basis of effective leadership because it makes the leaders ideas and opinions known to the subordinates.
- Facilitates co-ordination : communication is the most effective means of creating co-operation and co-ordination among individual efforts. Exchange of ideas and information helps to bring about unity of action in the pursuit of common purpose. Communication binds people together.
- Sound Industrial Relations : Effective communication helps to create mutual understanding and trust between the employer and the employees. It enables lthe management to come into close contact with workers. It serves as a bridge between management and labour and creates team spirit in the organisation. Thus, an effective communication system is a pre-requisite of good labour management relations.
- Smooth and efficient Operations : An effecive communication system serves as a lubricant, fostering the smooth and efficient functioning of the enterprise. The achievement of enterprise goals is of paramount importance and communication is one of the important tools available to the manager seeking to attain them. It is through communications that a manager changes and regulates the behavior of subordinates in the desired direction. Effective communication promotes managerial efficiency.
- Industrial Democracy : communication is essential for worker’s participation in management. It is helpful in delegation and decentralization of authority. Effective communication is the basis of training and developing of managerial personnel. The process of leadership itself depends upon effective communication.
- Employee Motivation and Morale : Through communication management can keep the employees fully informed of plans, jobs changes, etc. the motivation and morale of employees tend to be high when they clearly understand what they are supposed to do. Communication is the means by which employees can bring their suggestion, difficulties and grievances to the notice of the management. Upward communication ensures greater job satisfaction are stimulates worker’s enthusiasm and loyalty to the enterprise. effective communication satisfies personal and social needs of employees.
Importance of Communication in Business
- Semantic Barriers in Effective Communication
- Words with different meaning : Communication is mainly carried through spoken and written words. But some words convey different meaning to different people.
e.g., The word tube may mean a fluorescent tube, a cycle tube or a water tube.
When the reader or listener assign a different meaning to a word than what the writer intended, there occurs miscommunication.
- Bad expression : When the message is not formulated and presented in the proper manner, the receiver fail to comprehend it and misunderstanding occurs.
- Faulty translation : Each centre has to process the information it receives and translates it in a suitable form for further transmission. Often people translate words in a literal sense thereby losing the spirit behind the words. Inaccurate translation leads to misunderstanding and confusion.
- Unclarified assumption : The sender of a message often makes some assumption when these assumption are vague and unknown to the receiver communication suffers.
e.g., On Monday prof. Sinha announced to his class, “will be out of town from Tuesday until Friday. There will be no classes while I am going.”
On thuesday 80% students came to class but Prof. Sinha failed to appear. On Friday 20% came along and Prof. sinha was also present.
- Physical Barriers in Effective Communication
- Noise : The flow of communication is often blocked due to nosie caused by traffic, human sounds, construction work, typerwriters, fan, etc.
In factories loud noise of the machines makes oral communication difficult.
Noise refer to the distracting elements, which breaks the concentration of the sender and prevent him from paying attention to the contents of the message. Noise can be either physical or psychological.
- Distance and time : Physical distance between the sender and the receiver serves as a barrier to smooth communication.
Telephone and telex facilities are not available everywhere. There may be breakdown in the telephone, telegraph and postal services or mechanical equipments. Problems in the medium of communication may lead in transmission.
- Information overload : Excess of communication is called information, overload. The receiver cannot comprehend and absorb beyond his mental capacity.
his mind will be closed for a part of the communication.
Difference Between Management and Administration
|Basis of Difference||Management||Administration|
|1. Meaning||Management means getting the work done through and with others.||Administration is concerned with the formulation of objectives, plans, policies of the organization.
|2. Nature||Management refer to execution of decisions. It is a doing function.||Administration relates to decision
making. It is a thinking function.
|3. Type of Work||It is concerned with implementation of policies.||It is concerned with determination of major objectives and policies.
|4. Leading of Human Effort||It is actively concerned with direction of human efforts.||It is not directly concerned with direction of operative personnel.
|5. Authority||Management has operational authority.
|Administration has authority to take strategic and policy decision.|
|6. Status or Level||Management is relevant at lower level of management.
|Administration refers to higher levels of management.|
|7. Decision Making||Management decides who shall implement the administration decision.
|Administration determines what is to be done and when it is to be done.|
|8. Influence||Administration decisions are influenced by public opinion, social forces, government policies etc.
|Management decision are affected mainly by organizational values, policies and beliefs to managers.